International School of Florence

Vocabulary

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The Elements of Art

 

Line

path of movement

active - passive

bold - delicate

flowing - light

straight - curved

thick - thin

dark - light

broken - continuous

geometric - organic

implied - actual

precise - irregular

contour - outline

calligraphy

caricature

 

Shape/Form

2D-3D

solid - void

concave - convex

positive - negative

figure - ground

ambiguous - complete

organic - geometric - free-form

circle - sphere

square - cube

triangle - pyramid-cone

 

Space

2D-3D

positive – negative

open – closed

filled – empty

actual – implied

interior – exterior

 

Scale

orientation

spacing

illusion of space

systems of perspective

 

 

Light/Color/Value

Visible color spectrum

Color wheel

value

shading

contrast

chiaroscuro

tint

shade

hue

pigment

primary

secondary

intermediate

neutral

color interactions

simultaneous contrast

color schemes

warm

cool

neutral

monochromatic

analogous

complementary

split complementary

triad

intensity

bright – dull

high key – low key

local

optical (or atmospheric)

symbolic

 

Texture

actual (tactual) – visual

simulated – invented

matte – semi-gloss – glossy

techniques

impasto

rubbings

frottage

grottage

decalcomania

tromp l’oeil

 

Principles of Design

 

Balance

symmetrical

asymmetrical

radial

 

Rhythm, Movement

types

regular

alternating

progressive

flowing

jazzy

dominant path of movement

vertical

horizontal

diagonal

curving

 

Proportion

life-size

monumental

miniature

Golden Section or Mean

scale

caricature

normal – exaggerated – idealized

Emphasis

by dominance

by focal point

by center of interest

by isolation

by size

by contrast

by converging lines

 

Pattern

repetition

motif (2D)

module (3D)

allover

 

Unity and Variety

by repetition

by simplicity

by harmony

by theme and variation

by proximity

by continuity

by contrast

 

General Vocabulary

 

PROPORTION: To put in proper relation with something else.

LINE: A mark with length and direction, created by a point that moves across a surface.

SHAPE: 2-Dimensional objects (circle, square, triangle)

FORM: 3-Dimensional objects ( cone, cube, cylinder, sphere)

THUMBNAIL SKETCH: a small, quick drawing used to get your ideas on paper

CONSTRUCTION LINES: rough line drawings used to give an object mass and volume

LINE-OF-ACTION: designates the movement or action of a character in a drawing

POSITIVE SPACE: area an object occupies.

NEGATIVE SPACE: area around an object.

VALUE: lightness or darkness of an color

CROSSHATCH: multiple perpendicular lines that add value to an object

SMUDGING: using an object to blend values. (not your finger)

COMPOSITION: way of arranging a drawing or painting so it is interesting to look at and equally balanced.

GOLDEN RULE OF THIRDS: a way of breaking down a composition mathematically, focusing on thirds.

BACKGROUND: area within a composition that appears further away from the viewer. Objects appear smaller with less detail.

MIDDLE GROUND: part of a composition that appear between the foreground and back ground.

FOREGROUND: in a scene or artwork , the part that seems closest to you. Objects appear larger and more detailed.

SYMMETRY: both sides of a center line are exactly or nearly the same, like a mirror.

ASYMMETRY: two sides of a composition are different yet balanced

HUE: common name of a color ( i.e. blue, green, etc)

PIGMENT: gives paint it's color.

SPECTRUM : all the colors in the color wheel

PRIMARY : red, blue & yellow

SECONDARY : green, orange & violet ( mix primary colors)

TERTIARY (INTERMEDIATE) : red-orange, yellow-orange, blue green, etc.

ADVANCING COLORS : colors that appear to come towards you (warm colors)

WARM COLORS : red, orange & yellow

COOL COLORS : blue ,violet & green

RECEDING COLORS : colors that appear to be in the background

TRIADIC : colors that create a triangle on the color wheel

ANALOGOUS :colors that are next to each other on the color wheel

COMPLEMENTARY : colors that are directly across from each other on the color wheel

INTENSITY : brightness or dullness of a color

OPAQUE : colors that you can't see through

TRANSPARENT : colors that you can see through

VALUE : darkness or a lightness of a color

TINT : color and white

TONE : color and grey

SHADE : color and black

MONOCHROMATIC : a single color and it's tints and shades

PALETTE : colors you paint with or the thing that you put the colors on

MOOD : emotion portrayed within an artwork

VERTICAL : top - to - bottom. This can refer to the placement of objects within a composition or the composition itself.

HORIZONTAL : left - to -right. This can refer to the placement of objects within a composition or the composition itself.

AESTHETICS: To experience a feeling or response to art.

 

 

 

 

 

Image sources

 http://wiki.dca-project.eu/index.php/DCA_Vocabulary

http://visual.ly/principles-design

Art Teachers

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